08th May2017

Models of Communication

by admin


McQuail introduces us to four models of communication. These models of communication include a transmission mode, a ritual which is also known as an expressive model, communication as display and attention such as a publicity model, and finally encoding and decoding. The encoding and decoding model of media discourse includes a reception model where the mass communication would be influenced by and dependent on mass production, distribution and reproduction which are shared and distributed by other form of media.

A transmission model has a fixed quantity of information that is sent to the mass audience wherein the audience interprets the message according to the objectives of the sender or the source objective. This process represents a linear sequence with questions such as who says what and to whom and through what channel is it sent and what kind of effect does it have on the audience. Westley and MacLean show three important features which are selecting roles for the communicators and selecting them according to the audience interests and communication is not judgemental of subjective. A transmission model also uses propaganda as it sends messages as they are and force the audience to interpret it as the media have stated it.

A ritual or expressive model creates communication that will reach to diverse cultures through shared beliefs and values such as the mass audience participate, associate, fellowship and possess a common faith. An alternative model is there to show satisfaction of the sender or receiver as they depend on shared emotions and understandings which require the performance to take place in order for it to be realised. The ritual model can be found being practiced in public ceremonials, festivals, religion and art forms.

The communication as display and attention of a publicity model aims to grab and hold attention from the visual and aural forms of communication for the mass audience. Therefore, the media have the privilege or luck to get revenue from the audience and the audience attention is sold to the advertisers by media. Quality of attention matters less than the fact and true meaning of attention. Advertisers also use the publicity model of communication that will benefit them and their own purposes through persuading the audience to buy the goods and services provided advertised in various media channels.

An encoding and decoding of media discourse such as reception model .depends on adopting critical perspectives from the audience. For example, when the sender sends a message encoding the message they intend for the receiver to understand. On the other hand, there are many receivers with different backgrounds and culture that will receive and interprets the message differently according to their context or culture. Ultimately, the reception model allows the sender to send messages to different audiences and the audience is allowed to take in the message, analyse and interpret them in their own way. Furthermore, they are able to have their own understandings of the message and resist ideological influence through oppositional readings according to their own contexts and cultures.

Therefore, these four models are really crucial for communication…



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