16th Oct2017

A Seat At the Table

by admin

Black White

Hi everyone,

Last weekend, Professor Mamokgethi Phakeng, the Deputy Vice Chancellor of Research and Internationalisation at UCT revealed that she had been the victim of a recent smear campaign that sought to cast doubt on her qualifications. The fact that a womxn as distinguished as Professor Phakeng was a victim of such malevolence demonstrates the pervasiveness of racial micro-aggressions within our society. We often think of racism being as overt as the white supremacist rallies that have become commonplace in America but we need to also acknowledge the more subtle racism that is just as effective at isolating and dehumanizing the objects of its manifestation. In order to combat this problem, greater awareness is necessary. As we occupy the seats at the tables we have been systematically excluded from, we need to acknowledge these micro-aggressions and keep fighting to dismantle these systemic exclusions.

Until next week.

Sandiswa and the exPress imPress team of 2017

16th Oct2017

Being Black and Not Belonging in Academia

by admin

Mamokgethi Phakeng

Last weekend, Professor Mamokgethi Phakeng, the Deputy Vice Chancellor (DVC) for Research and Internationalisation at the University of Cape Town (UCT), revealed  on Facebook that there was a malicious email campaign launched against her that sought to cast doubt on her qualifications. The emails were sent to a list of about 40 people that included a former Vice Chancellor, members of the university’s council, senior professors and alumni.

According to Phakeng, the email distribution list looked well established and there were emails that did not refer to her and her qualifications. One alumni made reference to a DVC on Twitter who “is self-absorbed and narcissistic and can only be compared to [Donald] Trump”. A second responded stated in their response that they do not believe that she is mathematically qualified at all.

Phakeng, who became the first black womxn to obtain a PhD in mathematics education in 2002, has received messages of support from students, UCT staff members and academics in the wake of these allegations. UCT Vice Chancellor, Max Price, released a statement in support of Phakeng. In his statement, he refers to the emails as being mischievous and that he is saddened by the “attack on [Phakeng’s] integrity, professionalism and academic standing”. Others on social media came out in support of Phakeng with the hashtag #HandsOffPhakeng trending on Twitter.

Phakeng has stated that she chose to reveal the incident on social media because of her large network on social media and also because she wanted to highlighted the prevalence of these kinds of attacks on black academics. Holding a powerful position in academia, Phakeng believes that she can use her stature to draw attention to the racism that a lot of black academics experience on a daily basis. The experience has taught Phakeng that South Africa’s higher education spaces are not as transformed as she once thought and that racism continues unfettered within academia.

What Phakeng has brought to our attention is that racism is rampant within South Africa’s major institutions. Black academics and professionals are often questioned on their qualifications and are placed under a level of scrutiny that their white colleagues do not experience. There are many instances of  micro-aggression that black professionals often experience and cannot talk about. Whenever, we hear the word “racism”, we often think of emboldened white supremacists holding rallies in Charlottesville under the banner of Unite the Right. However, the subtle racial micro-aggressions that manifest themselves within many workplaces, and other spaces, are just as harmful as the more “obvious” manifestations of racism. Despite the proclamations of many liberals, racism still exists and it doesn’t only rare its ugly head when the “rotten apples” use the k-word or when school teachers make pupils the object of racist remarks. The most important thing we can learn from what Phakeng experienced last week is that the racism we experience may not be as overt as a brick thrown at your window but its impact is just as malignant.

15th May2017

What a Time to be Alive

by admin


Racism is still alive and well doing what it does best. It is most certainly not a thing of the past (unlike what we were taught in many history classes) as it is the very thing that caused the death of Matlhomola Jonas Mosweu. The little black boy was allegedly killed by two white farmers Pieter Doorewoord and Phillip Schutte in Coligny in the North West. The reason behind his death is apparently because these two farmers had caught the boy “stealing” a sunflower, the very creation of God, on their farm. I argue that this is mere racism because this reason cannot be justified for his death matter-of-factly.  There can be no justification for the killing of a black child by white men especially in post-colonial, post-apartheid, constitutionally democratic South Africa. It is astonishing that in this day and age such brutality can be performed in broad daylight.

It is shocking that men who are supposedly sane can inflict such grotesque acts in the name of hate.  It is absolutely scary that black people should still live in fear of possible racial attacks. I would not be surprised if the accused denied the relation of racism against this charge. I would understand that, as brave as they were when killing this boy, they may be afraid of igniting the wrath of anti-racists if ever they admitted their act to have been solely based on racism. It is still hard for me to imagine what this little boy could have possibly done in order for them to have not merely verbally disciplined him, reported him to the police if he had broken the law, taken him to his parents to reprimand him themselves or even simply told him that what he did was wrong and shouldn’t be repeated in the future. The society at large should move towards a united South Africa that belongs to all. We need to steadfastly isolate racist elements within our communities and not infringe the rights our constitution has intrinsically granted us.

18th Jul2016

I See You See Black

by admin

The sun burns Wicked Bodies…


Day sees us dying in our smiles

And night waits for us – who we really are – alive.


I know you think I don’t, but I do;

I see you see black.


And I am here to tell you I am more than that;

Why are you amazed at my presence?

Why are you surprised

That I can have a mind?


I am More than an just Art piece, I am More than just a Number,

I am Nothing to watch in that Manner,


I have a Heart,

I am Together and I fall Apart,

I Bleed, I feel Rain,

I was bore by a Woman,

I can smell Roses,


I am More than the questions raised in ‘Philosophy’,

I am More than just a Dark part in ‘History’


Why did I ever need Science to tell me I am a human being?

Why does the colour of my skin have to make me something else?







Note: The above Poem is not racist and not intended to offend ANYBODY, but it is just a mere inspiration from the Block 3 First Year Philosophy topic, Philosophy of Race, and My pride in My ‘blackness’.

13th Apr2015

Kendrick Lamar & J Cole: Our Modern Day Pac & Biggie

by admin

Jeffrey Motlhamme speaks about the hip hop culture and some of its influential contributors.


Hip hop, as a culture, is known as a movement that was born out of a struggle and serves as a tool to communicate messages that appeal to society in general. However, throughout the years there has been a transition within the hip hop culture. We had rappers focusing more on talking about what they have as well as crime. Yes, it is understood that the whole idea about the hip hop culture is self-expression, but this should not shadow the fact that rap is meant to instil hope in the hearts of the emotionally broken and hopeless. With the racial violence that is taking place around the world, especially in the United States, there is a need for rappers to focus more on the topics, like, racism. Luckily we have saviours in the rap industry, for example: Kendrick Lamar and J Cole.


Looking at Kendrick Lamar’s sophomore album, “To Pimp a Butterfly,” there are some songs that provide hope for the followers of the movement who wish to address the main problems affecting society. For instance, in this album, Lamar constantly addresses the issue of racism; the track list says it all. By rapping about such issues, Lamar is touching on and bringing awareness to what is currently considered one of the most sensitive issues around the world – race – unlike those rappers who are disrespecting the art of hip hop by painting negative images for society to look at.


On the other hand, J Cole is doing a great job of painting some vivid pictures of the society we live in. He puts his best efforts into addressing racism and stereotypes that different parts of society have about different cultural or racial groups; particularly, black culture. J Cole offers us a piece of his thoughts about racism by taking us through the crimes committed to black young men by white policemen as well as the stereotypes people have about black young men. This can be seen by J Cole’s famous song, “Be Free,” which he wrote soon after the tragic and unlawful death of Michael Brown. J Cole also demonstrates the need to defend black culture in his new music video for his song, “GOMD,” from his third studio album, “2014 Forest Hills Drive”.

j cole

Therefore, J Cole and Kendrick Lamar are what we can call the modern day ‘Pac’. Some of the followers of hip hop culture might not agree with the aforementioned ideas of what rappers should focus on because, yes; sometimes hip hop is purely about fun and entertainment. However, at the end of the day these are the issues that deeply affect society and what rappers say contributes to the ways in which society in general view black culture.


2Race is an important issue and it is a problem that every society faces. Web Dubois accurately predicted this situation when he declared that race would be the biggest problem of the 21st century. Therefore, J Cole and Kendrick Lamar are touching on important topical issues that other rappers are perhaps too afraid to rap about. This is a lesson to other rappers because rap, in practice, should be the voice of the voiceless. These two rappers are important to hip hop because of the realism they offer. They reach out to all the rappers and hip hop lovers out there to stop disrespecting the art. They also call on black communities to stop the black-on-black violence experienced around the world. To understand what these two great thinkers communicate with their music, you first have to understand the forms that racism takes around the world; particularly within black communities. But nonetheless, there you have it: Kendrick and Jermaine, our modern day Pac and Biggie.

19th Aug2013

Oprah; another victim of “Racism”

by admin

Hazel Kimani looks at the recent racism scandal involving Oprah Winfrey.

hk1Famous talk show host, Oprah Winfrey is the latest addition to the long list of victims of an often unspoken form of racism. Just last week, Winfrey visited Zurich, Switzerland for Tina Turner’s wedding. Winfrey was initially tight-lipped about the racial incident that took place in a Swiss boutique but eventually brought to light the everyday experience of black or brown skinned people during an interview with Entertainment tonight.

According to the Daily Mail, the encounter was over a $37,000 crocodile skinned Tom Ford bag. Winfrey claims that when she requested to see the bag in mention, the shop clerk on duty, unaware of who she was speaking to, said, “that one will cost too much, you won’t be able to afford that.” The shop clerk later denying Winfrey’s accusation says that she explained that the bags come in different sizes and materials, when Winfrey requested to see the $37,000 bag at the top of the display, she simply pointed out a less expensive alternative.

During the interview with Entertainment tonight, Winfrey explained that she feels that racism shows up differently and this incident is something that “people with black or brown skin experience every day” and that this is just “an example of being in a place where people don’t expect that you would be able to be there.”

Winfrey, a black person accustomed to the norms of society unapologetically expressed that, “you should be able to go in a store looking like whatever you look like and say ‘I’d like to see this’, that didn’t happen.” Furthermore she stated, “the person doesn’t obviously know that I carry the black card and so they make an assessment based upon the way I look and who I am.’ Winfrey says that she did not have anything that showed that she was wealthy. “I wasn’t wearing a diamond stud. I didn’t have a pocketbook. I didn’t wear Louboutin shoes. I didn’t have anything,’ she said.

This incident causes one to question the tolerance of variations of racism in our society. Why can’t dark skin simply be valued and deemed worthy? Why do black people feel they have to flaunt every cent in their pockets to prove their wealth and why is society too expectant and dependent of such an act? Why is there still an association between acceptance and melanin? Like Oprah, having dark skin is something that determines your basic treatment in society. Adequate treatment as a black person involves, a white accent, kink free hair and a body covered by designer clothes; fitting the moulds of non-blacks in order to ensure their comfort. I believe that this is a form of racism but the outcry is only public due to this ordinary incident happening so extraordinary.

Nonetheless Winfrey who is well aware of the powerful effect that her words have, insisted that, “it’s not an indictment against the country or even that store…it was just one person who didn’t want to offer me the opportunity to see the bag…so no apologies necessary from the country of Switzerland. If somebody makes a mistake in the United States do we apologize in front of the whole country? No!”


13th Sep2012

Is it worth ‘slating’ Woolworths?

by admin

There has been a public outcry on various social networking and blogging sites against Woolworths’ recruiting procedures. The outcry was sparked by blogger Justin Harris, who reported information on his blog on September 2, 2012, stating that “Woolworths racist recruiting excludes whites”. Woolworths has allegedly posted vacancies which specifically stipulated that only “African, Coloured and Indian” candidates would be considered, therefore openly excluding “whites”.

Other than bad publicity, the blog sparked various oppositional reactions from (mainly) white members of the population and ultimately led to various customers threatening to boycott purchasing goods from Woolworths. What is interesting about this is that various companies have strict regulations to adhere to government and Harris even acknowledges this by stating the existence of “blatant racist economic policies” which “require a voice and some decisive action”. The problem is however that this “voice” and “decisive action” is being directed against a company following government legislation. They could very well state that the vacancies are open to anyone and secretly only recruit persons of colour, as is common with many companies, but would that change the fact that only non-whites will be recruited? If it is so easy for businesses to evade government legislation, why is Harris not taking government on instead?

Another interesting question is whether Woolworths is responsible for openly administrating “racist” legislation or have they done so deliberately to ignite the outcry? If the latter be true, why are they the ones facing the fire? However one may look at it, the fact remains that boycotting Woolworths products may affect this specific company but it will hardly assist in changing government legislation. Should the public not petition instead against discriminating legislation, rather than against one company following government rules? Woolworths may be guilty of exposing the harsh reality of the aftermath of apartheid for all citizens, but they should not be held accountable for following rules, which if not adhered to, may cost their business and therefore ultimately risk existing employees to lose their jobs as well as affect the country’s economy negatively.

Another viewpoint raised in a News24 article, citing the Young Communist League (YCL), is that the legislation in place regarding recruitment is in line with assisting South Africa’s “employment demographics” and the issue of inequality of wealth distribution. All citizens within South Africa suffer the aftermath of apartheid and are faced with harsh realities and circumstances that are not due to their own error. Whites are complaining about issues such as racist and discriminating legislation and land redistribution measures and non-whites are complaining about issues such as their harsh poverty-stricken circumstances, all due to a dark history whose residue proves these issues to remain rife. Instead of complaining about the unfortunate situation we are in, each citizen should take the responsibility in ensuring that they empower themselves with the necessary level of education in order to determine what is best for the future of their country.

Sharney Nel is a second year student in Media Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand.


24th Aug2011

Second generation trauma

by admin

I attended an amazing seminar at the University of the Witwatersrand on Thursday 18th of August. The speaker at the seminar was Eva Hoffman, who is both a writer and an academic. The topic of the seminar was “Lost and Found in Transition: Contested memories and moving on from difficult pasts” , and more specifically second generation trauma. A phenomenon I have recently come to learn about and find very intriguing.

Second generation trauma has to do with the aftershocks that the children of survivors of gratuitous violence experience. The expression was first used to describe the children of Holocaust survivors. I came across this term when reading Maus, a great graphic novel by Art Spiegelman. He not only tells his father’s story of living through the genocide but also tells his personal story of trying to deal with that ‘passed on’ trauma. Eva Hoffman’s autobiography Lost in Translation does the same. She too is a second hand trauma victim.

Eva Hoffman described second hand trauma as encapsulating contested memories and transitions after great wrongs have been committed. This can prove problematic when trying to achieve reconciliation, especially because the afterlife of atrocity is long. She went on to say that democracy and freedom are difficult to negotiate after such a traumatic experience and that this initiation is necessary. Not from the victims’ side but from the perpetrators’. In Jewish consciousness, the Polish were and are seen as being conspirators with the Nazi’s in contributing to Jewish suffering. In the same breath, she said that Polish descendants cannot be blamed or punished for their forefathers, but they need to acknowledge what happened. “After such wrongs have been done, they can’t be undone… Recognition, not forgiveness needs to be the starting point of reconciliation.”

The whole time she was speaking I was thinking of the South African example of the above. As the seminar went on Ms Hoffman delved deeper into the nature of second generation trauma. She said that it has to do with the transmission of memories but not exclusively; memory coupled with the after-effects of parental experience. This transmission often leads to the second generation being frozen in time, in so doing perpetuating the cycle of revenge within their generation. The children of survivors speak of despondency, depression and anger which all arise from trying to locate their parents’ context in history. None of the above can be resolved unless a second generation dialogue is initiated.

Second generation dialogue refers to the conversations that need to take place between the children of the victims and those of the perpetrators. We need to recognise that children of the perpetrators are also going through some form of trauma. They are traumatised by the silence of their parents, their inability to admit they were wrong. As a result they try to reject their parents but cannot do that because it is easier said than done. The fact that both sides are trying to deal with inherited trauma should be the condition that allows for a dialogue to take place. Trust and understanding are imperative for this dialogue to work. This dialogue is the only means of getting on a reconciliatory path and leading to an expansion of minds.

I brought all of the above into a proximal context, a personal context. I consider myself as a victim of second generation trauma. I often wrestle with the issues that Ms Hoffman raised. I am angry and despondent about apartheid, and so are a lot of my peers. It is particularly difficult for us to ‘move on’ because the lived reality of inequality is still very real to us. What I mean by this is that South Africa inherited a structure of violence and immense inequality. Today we refer to it as the legacy of apartheid. How can we even begin to let go when the effects of that totalitarian system are still rife in our society? The racial disparities in our society are very obvious and this is something that needs to be addressed. However, when one starts to speak about such issues we are met with contestations of being too racialist. I find that a lot of liberal whites and blacks want us to repress the past. This would be folly; the past needs to be acknowledged and addressed. “Wrong doers cannot get forgiveness until they admit to crimes and are willing to repent for them”, said Hoffman.

This brought up questions from the audience about the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). One gentleman said it was highly idyllic and aimed to quickly cover up the past. He went on to say it failed because forgiveness is a Christian doctrine and forced people to adhere along those lines. To counter this, a young lady said we cannot look at the TRC as a defining moment but a mere example of things that can be done to help the nation move on. Hoffman answered this by saying: “The side most responsible for atrocities needs to make the first step”. This is where the TRC failed. To add on to this point, another young lady said it is astonishing to her that “those who weren’t allowed to vote before 1994 are now responsible for reconciling a nation that was destroyed by those who were allowed to vote”. Surely it should be the inverse.

I must say this seminar did help me in negotiating my position as a young black person. Along with this I had a defining “aha moment”. I never thought about the equally complex psychological disposition of my white peers. Both ‘sides’ cannot reject or abandon their parental history but we need to remember it is not our own. The second generation dialogue resonated with me; it is the first step we can all take on this journey of reconciliation. It will not happen overnight; it will be a process. We need to create our own history that will reflect our willingness to try and amend the past.

Pheladi Sethusa is a second year BA student in Media Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand

31st Mar2011

Are we heading toward a society of many Martin Sudgens?

by admin

Donavan van Lill (source: Independent Newspapers)

Two weeks ago, I read the story Racist ‘jibes’ led to murder in The Star and it left me in complete ambivalence. Like any other ‘normal’ law-abiding citizen, I was obviously shocked by the gruesomeness of the murder. However, I was even more astounded – in a diametrically opposite direction – by the story behind it. Basically, the allegations were that a white man, Martin Sugden, had murdered his (also white) personal trainer and ‘friend’ Donavan van Lill because of van Lill’s racist behaviour. It was interesting to me that van Lill was South African. If anything, the story was just another – though evidently more violent – illustration of the reality of racism in this country. Moreover, the seriousness of the issue has been illuminated because many are completely oblivious to it and/or have accepted it as the normalcy.

Racial discrimination is the daily lived experience of many South Africans. As we go through our daily lives we are confronted with various social roles which the media and other social institutions define and then instil in us. These specific social identity roles come to define us and inform how we live our lives and further, how we relate to each other. The fact that I am a young woman, a university student and most importantly, a black person carries very specific meanings. Of these roles none is quite as sensitive as the race category.

Race is a historical concept defined in, amongst other things, lived experiences. More than the coarseness of my hair and the tan of my skin I am black because I speak, dress, and ‘behave’ in a certain way and live in a specific place. A white friend once told me (after I had said “No“ when she asked me whether or not it was noisy in my commune): “Do not lie. Black people are always noisy”. I decided not to retaliate, partly because I have accepted that situations like these are part of the black person’s daily lived experience.

All the while though, I harboured inside me a similar anger to that of Sugden and many others who experience racial discrimination on a daily basis. I am in no way condoning the murder of van Lill. My argument is against the passive acceptance or oblivious attitude toward racism. Perhaps South Africans have – to some degree – moved forward from the previous Apartheid scenario. Indeed theoretically in laws and institutions we have. However, in the consciousness of people and their daily lived experiences we have not.

Moreover, there is a tendency to associate progress with whiteness and/or Westernization. A black person moving out of the township, getting educated and starting to ‘live like a white person’ is the customary trend. This is indicative of a continuation of black people’s self-negation. It illustrates that black people are not comfortable with their indigenous cultures and view white culture as superior. I am not saying that being successful and living an economically better life means that you have abandoned the struggle. My quarrel is more cultural. It is with the idea that if you look (in terms of hair, clothes etc), speak and ‘behave’ (in terms of your social habits and the connotations there inferred) in an ‘as white as possible’ manner then you are evidently better.

The mere insertion of black people into the white community was precisely what Biko was fighting against. Black consciousness is a necessary step that has been omitted in this country’s progress toward non-racialism. Yes, a fight for change in physical circumstances is necessary. But what results – after that change has taken place – is not really progress if it is a homogeneous culture premised on predominantly white values. And that I believe is the lesson to be learnt from the Donavan van Lill – Martin Sugden story. Both parties are ‘white’, living relatively ‘white lifestyles’. However evidently they have very different consciousnesses. Martin Sugden only had a relationship with a black woman. How much more anger is there in the black person himself toward racial discrimination?

Matshidiso Omega Moagi

17th Nov2010

Wits has a chance to do it right!

by admin

We do not need another University of the Free State (UFS) Reitz saga ROUND TWO.

Workers in outsourced companies recently issued a petition to Wits University about a senior manager who refers to them with the K-word,  threatens to cut their genitals, fires them as he sees fit, and restricts them. For example, workers are forced to use separate toilet and catering facilities and are barred from using the general university facilities. They are prohibited from collectively gathering at the university space – their place of work. These are people who clean our offices and lecture theatres, labs and toilets. They do our gardens, fix our electricity and water/sewerage pipes. They are predominantly black and African… sounds familiar?

These are echoes of apartheid separatism, colonial humiliation and slavery techniques of control, right at the centre of learning and teaching. The supposed haven of freedom of speech and knowledge production reveals its flip side as one of oppression of others.

The senior manager oppresses workers in the University’s name. Will Wits see the light? Or will they emulate University of the Free State Vice-Chancellor Jonathan Jansen and ask us to love without justice. I hope and will fight that they do not, but yet again, blacks are on their own, and till they learn to say I am black without fear and anger, we are doomed. For only a strong black response to strong white racism works. This is what workers at Wits have done. They came out and are prepared to fight.

When it happened at UFS, it was thought to be an isolated incident, but many of us at higher education institutions could immediately attest that the incident is actually the lived experience of many blacks. The amusement those white boys were creating through filming and distributing footage on Facebook is shared by many in their communities. Hence they did it.

But Jansen not only pardoned their horrendous acts, he described them as results of ‘miseducation’, in that they were not even aware that they were doing wrong, hence justifying the “necessity” of reconciliation. His version of political reconciliation immediately forced into the interpersonal without responsibility on the part of the perpetrator. The soft solution results into a situation where racism is tolerated as “we must forgive them because they do not know what they are doing”.

But this is false, for even those who crucified Christ knew it, owned it, and continued to do it to his followers long after he died. But then again Christ is not interested in reconciling with those who reject him, as he plans to throw them to hell and create a New Jerusalem without sinners who like to crucify him. Thus, our situation needs us to look to Cain who, even if he did not know what killing is, after murdering his brother he is met with a harsh sentence, because he must still learn that every action has a consequence.

Pushing for love without justice is simply evil. Accusing people who seek justice as being trapped in victimhood is simply barren thought and sinks us all into perpetual servitude. Whites must know that hatred of blacks is hatred and fear of themselves, a destruction of their own being. Thus, after centuries of racism they must take the cross to the mountain, sacrifice the self they carry in exchange for a new one, one that is healthy and does not build its meaning by negatively defining itself – I am not black!

Redemption is needed by all. Blacks cannot save whites, simply because they too do not have a healthy ‘self’. Beyond political forgiveness, we cannot give anything. Thus, without unearthing bondage from the relations we have with our destructed beings, forcing reconciliation will only yield perpetual compliance in our own servitude.

In that case, only a strong black response can save the day. Thus, interpersonal-racial exchange will need black consciousness because there is still strong white racism and domination. And as Biko said, a strong black response is the way. As blacks we must look into one simple formulation:

By simply describing yourself as black you have started on a journey towards emancipation, you have committed yourself to fight against all forces that seek to use your blackness as a stamp that marks you as a subservient being”.

To the transformation office and the Vice-Chancellor at Wits, blacks cannot forgive and reconcile anymore because it is unintelligible and does not work. Enough with the usage of our blackness as a stamp that marks us out as subservient beings. Be ye not compliant in the perpetual destruction of the black being – whoever is racist amongst us must be punished!

Let us honour the bravery of vulnerable workers who have taken a stand against racism by strongly and decisively responding in ways that teach Cain never to stone others to death. Grant them the demands which the Student Representative Council put forward: Wits must release a statement expressing the universities’ strong rejection of racism and commitment to decisively deal with the case of these vulnerable workers; Initiate a speedy and independent investigation in the matter involving the senior manager; Immediately suspend the senior manager till the independent investigation is concluded.  Based on the outcome of the above, fire him.

Mbuyiseni Ndlozi is a PhD candidate in Sociology at the University of the Witwatersrand. He can be contacted via mbuyiseni@gmail.com

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